英语语法梳理:英语八大时态归纳与总结

作者: deepwinter 分类: 英语 发布时间: 2019-04-22 11:31 点击量: 717 次阅读

时态是英语语法学习中一个至关重要的内容,八大时态指英语中的八个基本时态,即:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、过去将来时、现在进行时、过去进行时、现在完成时、过去完成时。


一般现在时

概念:
经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。

时间状语:
always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week, on Sundays, etc.

基本结构:

  1. be动词
  2. 行为动词

否定形式:

  1. am/is/are+not
  2. 此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't,如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词

一般疑问句:

  1. be动词放于句首
  2. 用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词

例句:

She goes to school by bike.
She does not go to school by bike.
Does she go to school by bike?

一般过去时

概念:
过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

时间状语:
ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

基本结构:

  1. be动词(was/were
  2. 行为动词(过去形式)

否定形式:

  1. was/were+not
  2. 在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词

一般疑问句:

  1. waswere放于句首
  2. 用助动词“do的过去式did提问,同时还原行为动词

例句:

I finished my homework yesterday.
I did not finish my homework yesterday.
Did you finish your homework yesterday?

一般将来时

概念:
表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

时间状语:
tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc.

基本结构:

  1. am/is/are/going to + do
  2. will/shall + do

否定形式:

  1. be动词 + not
  2. will/shall + not

一般疑问句:

  1. be放于句首
  2. will/shall提到句首

例句:

I am going to go fishing tomorrow.
I will go fishing tomorrow.
I am not going to go fishing tomorrow.
I won't go fishing tomorrow.
Are you going to go fishing tomorrow?
Will you go fishing womorrow?

现在进行时:

概念:
表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

时间状语:
now, at this time, these days, etc.

基本结构:
am/is/are+doing

否定形式:
am/is/are+not+doing

一般疑问句:
be动词放于句首。

例句:

He is playing computer game.
He isn't playing computer game.
Is he playing computer game?

过去进行时

概念:
表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

时间状语:
at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。

基本结构:
was/were+doing

否定形式:
was/were + not + doing

一般疑问句:
waswere放于句首

例句:

I was watching TV at 7:00a.m. yesterday.
I was not watching TV at 7:00a.m. yesterday.
Were you watching TV at 7:00a.m. yesterday?

现在完成时

概念:
过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

时间状语:
recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years, etc.

基本结构:
have/has + done

否定形式:
have/has + not +done

一般疑问句:
havehas置于句首

例句:

I have been to Beijing three times.
I have not been to Beijing.
Have you been to Beijing?

过去完成时

概念:
以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即“过去的过去”。

时间状语:
before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc.

基本结构:
had + done

否定形式:
had + not + done

一般疑问句:
had放于句首

例句:

I had already finished my homework when I watched the TV.
I had not finished my homework yet when I watched the TV.
Had you finished your homeword when you watched the TV?

过去将来时

概念:
立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

时间状语:
the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.

基本结构:

  1. was/were + going to + do
  2. would/should + do

否定形式:

  1. was/were + not + going to + do
  2. would/should + not + do

一般疑问句:

  1. waswere提到句首
  2. would/should提到句首

例句:

He said he would help me.
He said he would not help me.
I didn't konw whether he would help me.

几种常见时态的相互转换

英语中的几种时态在一定情况下可以互相转换,以下是几种常见的转换形式:

一般过去时与现在完成时的转换

在现在完成时中,延续性动词能与表示一段时间的状语连用,瞬间动词却不能。但是,可用別的表达方式:

  1. 瞬间动词用于“一段时间+ ago”的一般过去时的句型中
  2. 瞬间动词可改成与之相对应的延续性动词及短语,与一段时间连用
  3. 瞬间动词用于It is + 一段时间+ since + 一般过去时的句型中,表示“自从……以来有……时间”的意思,主句一般用it is来代替It has been
  4. 瞬间动词用于Some time has passed since + 一般过去时的句型中。
He joined the League two years ago.
He has been in the League for two years.
It is two years since he joined the League.
Two years has passed since he joined the League.

一般现在时与现在进行时的转换

在一般现在时中,at加上名词表示“处于某种状态”,如at work(在工作), at school(上学、上课)等。此短语可与进行时态转换。

Peter is at work, but Mike is at play.
Peter is working, but Mike is playing.

现在进行时与一般将来时的转换

在现在进行时态中go, come, leave, start, arrive等动词常与表示将来的时间状语连用表示将要发生的动作。如:I am coming, Mum!意为“我就来,妈妈!”。

The train is leaving soon.
The train will leave soon.

be going to+动词原形will(shall)+动词原形结构的转换

be going to+动词原形表示打算、计划要做的事;将来时will(shall)+动词原形结构在书面语中,当主语为第一人称时,常用助动词shall。在口语中,所有人称都可以用will

We are going to visit the Great Wall next Sunday.
We shall visit theGreat Wall next Sunday。 

参考文章:
http://cs.xdf.cn/zk/cszsdyy/201812/068484467.html
https://www.zybang.com/question/a3176997ebce329df7ac69a7d26ea3a3.html

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