名词性从句的用法

作者: deepwinter 分类: 英语 发布时间: 2019-05-05 11:11 点击量: 115 次阅读

1. 用法

名词性从句就是句子担任名词性的成分,如主语、宾语、表语、同位语。
它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

1.1. 主语从句

1. What he said is true.
2. When they will arrive is not known yet.
3. That he succeeded in doing the experiment was encouraging.
4. Whether he will accept the invitation remains a secret.
5. It is important that we should learn English well.

1.2. 宾语从句

1. I don't know if he has done the work.
2. Did he say that he liked football ?
3. They expected that they would be given another chance.
4. The girl told me that she had longed to visit China.

1.3. 表语从句

1. The question is whether we have enough time to do the experiment again.
2. His greatest wish was that someday he would become a general.
3. His suggestion was that we should discuss the plan carefully.
4. My question is when they can finish the work.

1.4. 同位语从句

1. You have no idea how eager they are to know the result.
2. He made a suggestion that the work should be given to him.
3. Have you heard the news that Premire Wen visited our school last Friday ?
4. The fact that he got full mark in the composition made his parents very happy.

2. 要点

名词性从句主要从以下几点把握。

2.1. 语序

从句一定要是陈述语序,如:

1. These pictures will show you what the village looks like now.
2. How many guests will be invited isn’t decided yet.

2.2. 时态

宾语从句的时态需要和主句进行协调。如主句是过去时,从句要用相应的过去时。

1. He told me that he had seen the film.
2. They said they would spend their holiday in Hainan.
3. Father said he was carrying out an important project.
4. Did you know where the accident took place ?

2.3. 连词

引导名词性从句的连词分为三种:

  • 连词thatwhether·、if(在主语、表语、同位语从句中用whether不用if`)
  • 连接代词whowhomwhosewhichwhat
  • 连接副词whenwherehowwhy
1. Whether the team has won the game is not announced yet. (主语从句)
2. How many people will take part in the competition will be known soon. (主语从句)
3. My idea is that we should spend our holidays by the seaside. (表语从句)
4. My question is how they finished the work in such a short time. (表语从句)
5. Many people are shocked at the news that there are so many SARS cases in Beijing. (同位语从句)
6. His suggestion that we should discuss the plan again has been received. (同位语从句)
7. I didn’t know if they had seen the film. (宾语从句)
8. We haven’t decided when we’ll start the project. (宾语从句)

2.4. 形式主语和形式宾语的应用

当主语从句比较长,主句比较短时,通常用形式主语it,而把从句放在后面,如:

1. It is said that they have succeeded in working out the problem.
2. It was important that we should make the plan carefully.
3. It remains a secret how the animals came to live in the sea.

当宾语从句后面有补语的时候,我们也需要用形式宾语it,而将宾语从句放在补语之后,如:

1. I found it very difficult that one learns several languages at the same time.
2. He thinks it necessary that we should be given more time practising oral English.
3. He made it clear that he would leave the office soon.

2.5. 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用

demandinsistsuggestcommandrequirerequestorderpropose等表示命令、要求、请求、建议等意义的动词后,宾语从句要用虚拟语气,动词形式为:should doshould可省,直接用动词原形,如:

1. He suggested that we (should) go outing this weekend.
2. The Emperor ordered that the clothes (should) be made for him at once.
3. He insisted that we (should) stay for lunch.

这种虚拟语气也可以运用在其他的名词性从句中,从句内容不变,如:

1. It was suggested that we should go outing this weekend. (主语从句)
2. He made a suggestion that we should go outing this weekend. (同位语从句)
3. His suggestion was that we should go outing this weekend. (表语从句)

2.6. 定语从句与同位语从句的区别

定语从句修饰前面的名词,而同位语从句说明前面名词的内容,引导定语从句的that在从句中担任名词性成分,而同位语从句中的that 不担任任何句子成分。如:

1. Have you heard the news that was broadcast this morning ? (定语从句)
2. Have you heard the news that we defeated the Japanese football team ?(同位语从句)
3. What do you think of the suggestion that was put forward by Lily ?(定语从句)
4. What do you think of the suggestion that we should speak only English in class ?(同位语从句)

2.7. 几个容易混淆的连词:

whetherif
whether可以用在所有的名词性从句中;而if只能用于宾语从句,另外,如果有介词的话,仍然用whether

1. Whether the advice will be accepted is not known. (主语从句,不可以用if)
2. I have no idea whether he will come. (同位语从句,不可以用if.)
3. The problem is whether we have enough time to do it again. (表语从句,不可以用if .)
4. He didn’t tell me whether (if ) he would accept my invitation. (宾语从句,两者都可以)
5. Everything depends on whether we have enough manpower. (介词之后不用if )

whatthat
that在名词性从句中不担任句子成分;what在名词性从句中做主语、宾语、表语等、通常译为所...的,如:

1. What we have done is very important. (what 做宾语)
2. That they have done the work is good news. (that 无句子成分)
4. I believe that he told truth. (that 无句子成分)

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